Public Administration

The Administrative Structure of Public Administration

The Administrative Structure of Public Administration : In public administration, the Chief Executive performs various legislative, executive and judicial functions in various areas.

Public Administration


The Administrative Structure of Public Administration

Public Administration: In public administration, the Chief Executive performs various legislative, executive and judicial functions in various areas.

The Chief Executive in public organisation mobilizes the efforts of the personnel to achieve organisation goals.

Public Administration: Among administrative functions, the Chief Executive  is involved in the formulations of administrative policy; deciding on the details of organisation;  appointment and removal of personnel; issuing directions, proclamations, orders etc:. management of finance, coordination of various activities; supervision, control and investigation of the administrative operation; public relation; and maintenance of proper system of communication.

 Public AdministrationAbove all, the Chief Executive provides leadership in an organisation. To perform all  these political and administrative functions, the Chief Executive delegates some of his powers to the line and staff agencies, attached to his office.

The agencies, which directly carry  out functions to achieve the goal of an organisation are called line agencies. While agencies that help, advice and assist the line agencies in carrying out their work are called staff agencies.


Public Administration: The Chief Executive is the head of administration at the respective national, state, district and local levels.

The Chief Executive could be of different types namely singular, plural or collegiate. In India at the Union level, President is the Constitutional Chief Executive, while the Prime Minister as the head of the cabinet is the “real”  Chief Executive.

 Public AdministrationThe Secretaries are in charge of different department like finance, education ,health etc., and run the administration in the real sense of the term.

At the state level, the Governor is the Constitutional Chief Executive and the Chief Minister is real Chief Executive.

At the district level, the District Collector is the Chief Executive, who is the most important functionary in the district administration.


Public Administration: The Constitution of India confirms that the executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President (Article 53).

The ‘executive power’ has been classified under administrative, legislative judicial and military. Despite these powers, the President is only a nominal executive, as he has to exercise his functions with the aid and advice of Council of Ministers headed by Prime Minister.

However, the President has discretionary powers, such as ordinance Making and pardoning powers. In addition, he has special powers relating to ‘Union Territories’.

He has the power to give instructions to the state Governor and to appoint commissions for specific matters. Thus, he is not totally deprived of real powers.

 Public Administration

Still it is a fact that the Prime Minister is the linchpin of the executive wheel.

As the Chief Executive, he presides over the meeting of the Cabinet, prepares the agenda and guides its deliberations; allocated portfolio among the Ministers;  and communicate to the President about the happening in and outside the country.

The Prime Minister is the chief spoken-person of the Cabinet in Parliament. He is the chief coordinator of Ministries and Departments and makes the major appointments in the name of President.

He represents the country at international forums. In work, he is assisted by the council of Ministers.

 Public Administration:

The Cabinet Secretary keeps the Chief Executive informed about the agenda of Cabinet meetings and assist him.

The work of administration is run by the Secretariat. It helps in policy-making, framing rules, exercising financial control; and guiding and directing the executive agencies in their tasks.

Thus, both staff and line agencies help the Chief Executive. We will discuss the functions of the line and staff agencies later in this Unit.


Public Administration: The Constitution of India provides for a federal government having separate system of administration for the Union and its state.

The Governor is a Constitutional ruler. In practice, he must act according to the advice of the Council of Ministries responsible to the state legislature.

 Public Administration: He has powers relating to the appointment of judge and member of the State Public Service Commission; addressing, summoning, proroguing, dissolving the state legislature; and granting pardons, remission etc.

He performs with the advice of Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. He also functions under the direction of the President of India.

Thus, the Chief Minister with his Council of Ministers is the real Chief Executive whirl the Governor is the nominal Chief Executive.

 Public Administration:

The Chief Minister is the political head at the state level and the Chief Secretary head the administration.

He is the kingpin of the state Secretariat and head of  the civil services in the state. The Chief Secretary work as the principal adviser to the Chief Minister; prepares the agenda for the Cabinet meetings, arranges meetings, maintains record of proceeding etc., exercise general superintendence and control over the Secretariat; and gives orders on postings, transfers etc., Of the government personnel.

Thus, he acts as a staff agency to the Chief Minister.


 Public Administration: The role of Chief Executive is very important at the district level. As a basic unit of administration, district is placed under the charge of a District Collector. Thus, District Collector is the Chief  Executive.

He is the kingpin of a administration, and all the administrative power are vested in him.

 Public AdministrationThe major function of the Collector are to maintain law and order; check proper implementation of social welfare and development programmes; make  necessary arrangements to complete the election process; supervise over the local bodies; assume charge under  unforeseen situations and utilize the district machinery to meet the situation; secure coordination at the district level in the working of various State Governments; and exercise control over field offices through inspection and meeting with his subordinates.

 Public Administration:

By this, he monitors different programmes’ and also fixes priorities. This, the Collector represents the stage government in its totality.

Other Government officers in the district look at him for support and advise. He acts as a buffer between the government and district administration, and between administration and citizens.

 Public AdministrationAs we have discussed just now, the Chief Executive’s office is the end-result of a political process. Chief Executive  in a Parliamentary system controlled by the Legislature, and Judiciary and in an organisation he controlled by the Board of Directors.

In his day-to-day functions, he is supported by the Line and Staff agencies. Let us now discuss the role of these agencies in the following Section.

For more references Click Here 

Also Read the following articles————-

Top Speech on Republic Day of India : 26th January

What is Democracy: Concept and Meaning

Basic Features of The Indian Constitution

Constituent Assembly and Drafting of The Constitution

Historical Background of The Indian Constitution: The History

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